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03-23-2011   #1 (permalink)
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Default Research Paper proofread.

Hi guys, I'm having to write a research paper for my computer class about ethics. I haven't written one in over 4 years though!

I was wondering if you guys could read over it and make sure that I've covered the idea of Normative Ethics. The teacher said he doesn't care about the layout or punctuation, just content.

Normative Ethics

Normative Ethics is the theory of how people should live. Basically it is the reason why things are right and why things are wrong as well as how we set guidelines for moral standards. There are three theories that make up Normative Ethics: first is the person who does the action, second is the action, and the third are the consequences that come from doing the action. “There are three types of normative ethical theory--Virtue, Deontological, and Consequentialist—each [emphasizing] one of these elements.” [4]

The first theory of Normative Ethics is the Virtue theory. It is said that the Virtue theory goes back “to the ancient Greek Philosopher Aristotle” and “according to Aristotle the way we acquire virtues is through habituation, practice.” [5] The Virtue theory is about the person doing the action. It says that we should do the morally correct thing even if that means that the outcome of the action will have undesirable consequences. Examples of this are “courage, generosity, compassion, fortitude, self-respect, good temper, and sincerity.” [3][1]

The second theory of Normative Ethics is the Deontological theory (also known as Deontology, and the Duty theory). This theory concentrates on the action that is being performed by the person. The Deontological theory is the complete opposite of the Consequentialist theory. The Deontological theory states that certain actions “are intrinsically right or wrong, irrespective of their consequences.” [5] Deontologists say that even some actions that would have good consequences should never be performed, and that is the main idea of the Deontological theory.

There are three more items under this that explain the Deontological theory even further: Kantian Ethics, Divine Command Theory, and Agapism. Kantian ethics, described by Immanuel Kant, "is firmly based [on] reason; we can derive moral laws from rational precepts, according to Kant, and anyone who behaves immorally also behaves irrationally." He also states that it also is like the biblical injunction "do unto others as you would that they should do unto you." [3] The second item under Deontological theory is called Divine Command Theory. Basically this theory says that we should follow God's commands no matter what the consequences might be, because he is a "moral authority". [3] The third and final item under this theory is called Agapism. Agapism comes from the Greek word of agape which means love. Agapism consists "of one simple command: in every situation, do the loving thing, whatever that may be." [3]

The third and final theory of Normative Ethics is called Consequentialism. This theory states "that the moral status of an act is determined by its consequences. It doesn’t matter what those acts are; the end justifies the means." [4] It also says that it does not matter who is doing the act or what kind of act it is, both of these things are "morally irrelevant." [2] However, sometimes, there is always going to be an action that will have a bad consequence. In those situations it says that you should choose the route that will have the best outcome even if it will still be bad. It would be like choosing the lesser of two evils. "[We] ought to [maximize] the good and [minimize] the bad."[2]

So to summarize, Normative Ethics is the theory of how people should live. It has three different theories that make up the whole theory of Normative Ethics. The first is the Virtue theory, stating that we should do the right thing even if the end result will have undesirable consequences. The second theory is the Deontological theory, which says that certain actions are always right or wrong regardless of the result whether it be good or bad. There are also three other items that make up the Deontological theory: Kantian Ethics, the Divine Command Theory, and Agapism, each of which further explains the idea of the Deontological theory. The last theory that makes up Normative Ethics is called Consequentialism, it says that the result of the action defines whether the action is good or bad. In the end, whether an action is good and bad really depends on what kind of theory the person believes in. An action could be considered good for one person, but then another person could find that action bad depending on their views.

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Last edited by Donges; 03-23-2011 at 12:44 PM.
 
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03-23-2011   #2 (permalink)
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Is this an essay?

(Is super not used to essay style. Reading everything you wrote makes me want to simplify it.)
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03-23-2011   #3 (permalink)
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It's a "modified" research paper I guess you could say.

We're having to research a certain thing about Ethics, and he said as long as we explain it, it doesn't matter how long it is.

Layout and punctuation doesn't matter to him, just as long as when he reads it, he understand what we researched.
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